6. The 1960's

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The 1960's were very turbulent times in most university towns and Ann Arbor was no exception. The Vietnam War brought out the worst, or best in people, depending on your perspective. Ann Arbor produced a number of famous activists and groups; some of the more famous activists were John Sinclair, Tom Hayden and Pum Plumonden. The Students for a Democratic Society and the White Panthers were founded in Ann Arbor.

These groups, activists and students were a source of great concern for the leaders of Ann Arbor and the police department. Most people who held a position of power in the community grew up during the depression and many of the men had served in the Armed Forces during World War Two and the Korean War. To say that there was a mistrust between the two groups would be a slight understatement.

During World War Two men flocked to sign up to fight for their country. Seeing men of the 1960's and 70's protesting against the Vietnam War, their country and fighting the draft was unconscionable to most of the men of the Ann Arbor Police Department.

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These two very different groups obviously did not mix very well during this time of upheaval. Free love and experimental drugs were attitudes and problems never encountered before on such a large scale. Throw in the Civil Rights movements and you can see what a volatile situation it was during the latter part of the 1960's. Luckily, the police department was led by two very able police chiefs during this time. I believe the city was lucky to have Chiefs Barney Gainsley and Walter Krasny heading the department during these turbulent times. These two men were not prone to over or under reaction and the city benefited from their leadership.

The 1960's began under the leadership of Chief Enkemann. On May 12, 1960, Chief Enkemann announced his retirement to a surprised command staff, which ended 30 years of service with the Ann Arbor Police Department. In his resignation letter he stated, “I feel the time has come to step aside and let someone else assume the responsibility of chief. I have enjoyed every minute of my 30 years with the department. I have tried to build an organization of which the people of Ann Arbor could be proud. This, the people will have to judge.”

He retired on July 1, 1960, after 16 years as chief and 30 years with the department. Chief Enkemann was a very popular, able chief and in my opinion, was one of the best the department produced.

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When Chief Enkemann joined the department the starting salary was $1800 a year. The department consisted of 28 officers and when he retired the sworn strength was 97. Some of the chief's major accomplishments were the establishment of the Youth and Traffic Bureau and a criminal record system. He emphasized ongoing training for the officers in an effort to bring professionalism to the department.

Without question, his proudest accomplishment was the establishment of the police department's outdoor shooting range on Huron River Drive. While this occurred before he was chief, it was his efforts that led to the creation of it.

Mayor Cecil Creal suggested to city council that Chief Enkemann be allowed to keep his two departmentally issued service revolvers, after his retirement. This was approved by city council and the chief retained the weapons that he had carried for so many years. His son, Jack, still has these weapons.

In one of his last official acts as Chief of Police, he wrote a memo to the employees of the department which stated, “I want to express my deep appreciation for the help which you have given me during my term of office as Chief of Police. Without your help I would have been a complete failure and it's difficult to say good-bye to such a grand group of employees. May I wish you all the best of everything.”

Appointment of Chief “Barney” Gainsley

On May 31, 1960, City Administrator Guy Larcom, announced the appointment of Deputy Chief Barney Gainsley to chief of police. The appointment was quickly approved by city council.

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Chief Gainsley was hired by the department on April 5, 1935. As he worked his way through the department he became known as a crack investigator, assigned the department's toughest cases. Due to his hard work he was promoted to sergeant in July of 1941, Lieutenant in 1944, Captain in 1946 and Deputy Chief in 1959. He retired from the department in 1966, after 31 years of service. In his new position of police chief, he received a salary of $8,627 a year.

Chief Gainsley began his first day of work as chief on July 1, 1960. He reported to work at 12:30 a.m., to begin his work day with a meeting with his midnight command staff.

This had spoiled the plans of his family however, who had planned to surprise him with a new watch at the beginning of his work day. They did not think he would be so eager to start his first day as chief, just after midnight.

Shortly after his appointment there were several promotions within the department. A “disturbed citizen”, (believed to be an officer passed over for promotion or a family member) wrote to the Ann Arbor News to complain about the promotional process. This “disturbed citizen” wrote that the results of the process were “rigged, prejudiced, political, religious or the result of bad administration.”

The writer believed that the citizens of Ann Arbor should demand answers as to how the recent appointments for the new command officers were made.

The Ann Arbor News printed an editorial that supported the police department's promotional process, which were based on oral interviews, evaluations and written tests.

They stated, “Whenever there is competition for promotion, there's certain to be disappointment among those who lose out. Sometimes this disappointment turns into bitterness. It appears something of this sort lies behind the charges made in the letter from “Disturbed Citizen.”

I have found many instances of officers, officers' family members or unidentified persons writing to the Ann Arbor News about complaints within the police department. Morale has always seemed to be an issue, as an officer's wife wrote in a letter to the editor in April of 1961.

In her letter she complains of the low wages that officers made and the fact that any officer who “butters up” command does not need to be a good officer. She also writes how men are “encouraged to gossip, as there can be no unity among the men if there is discourse among them.” She went on to say that the department “pays no attention to the suggestions, desires or complaints of the men. If the officers take their complaints to the public, they risk losing their jobs.”

Retirement of Officer Ben Ball

Another significant retirement that occurred during 1960, was that of Officer Ben Ball. Officer Ball was the longest holder of Badge “1”, which was given to the most senior officer in the department. Officer Ball was hired by the department in 1925 and retired in January of 1960, after more than 35 years of service.

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In his 35 years of service, he spent 33 of them walking the beat. When he was hired, officers worked 10 hours a day, six days a week and were paid $135 a month. Ben immensely enjoyed his work, stating, “No other job on earth is like police work. It's not like working at a factory or an office. With this you've got to take the job home with you, live with it, love it. I always did. And I was never unhappy.”

Officer Ball handled many interesting cases during his career. One of them was when he stopped a pick-up truck in 1928, during prohibition. The truck was hauling 21, 10-gallon milk cans. Officer Ball asked the driver if he could look into the cans, obviously thinking it was moonshine. The truck driver protested stating, “You can't look in there. That's special milk for babies and I've got to get it to the creamery.”

Officer Ball decided to look at this “special milk” and discovered $8,000 worth of moonshine. This moonshiner was placed under arrest for the illegal liquor.

It was well known in the city that Officer Ball loved to walk his beat, doing so for 33 years. Speaking with Officer Biederman, who worked for the department from 1940–1966, he told me that Officer Ball never had a driver's license while he worked for the police department. He felt if he obtained a driver's license, the department might force him into scout car work. When he retired, he finally obtained a driver's license and purchased a car! Officers walking the beat were expected to check every business in their area. If a break-in was reported the next day, the officer would find himself explaining to the sergeant why he did not discover it. Command officers often left notes in the doors of the businesses instructing the officers to contact them when they found the note. If the note was not found, the sergeant knew the building had not been checked. This note was left by an officer who was walking his beat and found a door to a business left open.

Russian Roulette

Most police departments have had incidents in which an officer was being careless with his weapon and the result was tragic. This occurred to our department on September 16, 1960, when Officer Milton Sinclair went to a party at his cousin's house in Detroit. Officer Sinclair had been a recent addition to the department, but had four years experience as a Detroit Police Officer.

He went to his cousin's party with his departmentally issued .38 revolver and handcuffs. While at the party, another partygoer, Martin Allard, asked to see Sinclair's weapon. Sinclair unloaded his revolver and placed the bullets on a table. He left the area and Allard picked up one of the bullets and placed it in the chamber of the weapon.

He then showed the gun to various persons at the party and asked one girl if she had ever played “Russian Roulette.” He then put the barrel of the gun to his head and began pulling the trigger. The gun went off and Allard was killed instantly.

Officer Sinclair was immediately suspended by Chief Gainsley and he resigned shortly thereafter. Chief Gainsley stated, “New officers are taught gun safety and precautions with almost as much emphasis as is placed on learning the law. We try to drill them the fact that a gun, especially their own, is not a plaything or a conversation piece. This is just one of those things that happens. Our sympathy goes out to the Allard family and Sinclair himself.”

Sgt. Headley Downey Dies of a Heart Attack

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On May 9, 1963, Detective Sgt. Headley Downey was investigating a larceny complaint on the University Campus, when he was fatally stricken with a heart attack. Sgt. Downey and Officer Frank Teachout, were taking a suspect back to the gym, so the suspect could show the officers where he had hidden a billfold. Sgt. Downey was driving to the gym when he pulled over and asked Officer Teachout to drive, as he stated he was not feeling well, but wished to continue with the investigation. He told Officer Teachout he had a pain in his chest, but did not place any significance to it.

They reached the gym and went to a downstairs locker room where Sgt. Downey stated he was too ill to walk. Officer Teachout then went back up to the patrol car to radio for an ambulance, while the suspect remained with Sgt. Downey. He was transported to the hospital, where he was pronounced dead a short time later.

Sgt. Downey had worked for the police department since 1946. He was promoted to sergeant in 1953. In 1960, he returned to patrolman's status, so he could transfer to the Detective Bureau. In 1962, he was returned to the rank of sergeant and assigned to the Detective Bureau. Sergeant Downey was the fourth Ann Arbor Police Officer to die while on duty. At the time of this book being written, he is the last officer to have died on duty.

Suspect Shot

Shooting a fleeing felon was still permissible in 1963, as evidenced by the shooting of an Ann Arbor man, who had stolen a car. Sgt. Marv Dann and Officer George Miller were on patrol when they attempted to stop the car, which had been reported stolen. The car was stopped at Fifth Avenue and Huron and the driver, Leroy Juide, was ordered out of the car. He was told to place his hands on the car, but ran from the officers instead. He began to run west on Huron and the officers gave chase. As Juide was outrunning the officers, Sgt. Dann fired a warning shot, but Juide continued running.

Officer Miller then fired one shot, which struck Juide in the back and passed through his body. He was taken to the University Hospital and eventually recovered from his wounds. It is hard to believe that officers were once allowed to shoot at someone for a property crime, much less someone who had stolen a car and then shoot him in the back. Truly a different era!

Race Relations

Race relations between the black community and the police department were at times tense and uneasy during the 1960's. A letter written to the Ann Arbor News in July of 1963 illustrates these tensions.

The writer stated he was informed of several instances of Ann Arbor Police Officers “stopping Negroes” in the community for no reason. The writer raised questions as to the department's policy in dealing with people of race. He also wondered if it was a covert policy of the police department to subject people of race to unwarranted questioning.

The Ann Arbor News asked Chief Gainsley directly about these allegations. The chief stated, “It is the policy of the Ann Arbor Police Department to treat everyone with courtesy and respect, without considering race, color or creed. All officers receive considerable training in public relations and many officers attended courses at Michigan State University on human relations.

“It is the desire of my office to be notified on any specific case or cases involving an Ann Arbor Police Officer who does not conduct himself as a gentleman or who should act without proper cause.”

Youth Bureau

The Youth Bureau continued to be a success in the early 1960's. Lt. Simmons was still in charge of the bureau, as he had been since its inception. Working with the schools, the Youth Bureau sought to gain the trust of the children by putting on programs for them, from kindergarten on up. Lt. Simmons stated, “We try to show the kids that policemen are human. We tell them about times we were scared stiff. We don't try to give the impression we're supermen.”

The Youth Bureau had started in the mid-1950's with a two person staff. By the early 60's, it had grown to a four person bureau. Through the schools the bureau targeted at risk youth and attempted to intercede on their behalf. These were youth that had committed no known offenses, but came from troubled homes. It was hoped that the officer's intervention and positive influence would sway these juveniles from getting into trouble. The Youth Bureau continued its program of finding jobs for youths, which was still a very successful project.

The Youth Bureau was considered one of the most effective in the state. Detective Mary Smith began her career in the Youth Bureau and served in the Detective Division until her retirement in 1997. Mary served over thirty years in the department and was well respected. Mary never was in uniform, as in her day, women police officers worked in the Youth Bureau or as secretaries. Mary often patrolled the downtown stores and local parks looking for shoplifters and truants.

In 1963, there was a rise in juvenile crime and Detective Smith attributed this rise to the “impersonal neighborhood.” She stated there was a tendency for people to call the police to settle their disputes instead of policing their own groups, as was done in years past. In 1963, there was an increase of 200 juvenile offenders from the previous year.

Lt. Simmons retired in July of 1969, after more than 24 years with the department. He spoke of what he perceived to be the problems with the youth of the 1960's upon his retirement. “Times change, styles change but the basics never do,” he said. “Kids today, like they were decades ago are basically honest, what they want are the three R's-responsibility, respect and reverence. They may shout that they want none of that “square” stuff, but there're crying for it.

“Many parents live in fear of causing trauma in their kids if they say no or deny their offspring something they want. The youngsters are secretly pleading for a firm hand and the only thing they get is a handful of bills and the keys to the car.”

Lt. Simmons was a highly recognized expert on the issues involving troubled youth and many police departments created their youth bureaus, using the model established by him.

An extension of the Youth Bureau occurred in 1965, as an officer was stationed permanently at Ann Arbor High (there was only one high school in the city at that time). Officer Chester Carter was assigned to the school and most involved were very supportive of the idea. The program proved so popular that the school system assumed the wages of the officer and to this day there are officers at both Ann Arbor High Schools.

Sewer Search

A bizarre incident took place on August 19, 1964, at 7:30 P.M. It involved off duty Officer Raymond Landis. Officer Landis was a part time caretaker for the University of Michigan and resided on Iroquois. At that time the University owned property near Iroquois, which was a Botanical Garden. Officer Landis was walking the grounds when he observed an open manhole cover. He pushed the cover back into place but then heard a voice from the sewer below.

Officer Landis then went back to his home and told his wife to call the department for assistance. He went back to the area of the manhole cover and observed the man, later identified as Jack London, lying on the ground near the sewer entrance. Officer Landis attempted to find out why London was on the property, but he would not respond.

At that point Landis told London that he was a police officer and he was placing him under arrest for trespassing. London then sprung to his feet and attacked Landis. Unknown to Officer Landis was that London was an escaped convict with a lengthy criminal record.

A fierce struggle ensued with London punching Landis in the face. London was screaming at Landis that he had a knife and shouted, “I'll stick you.” The fight continued and London began choking Landis and did so until the officer was unconscious.

Officer Landis regained consciousness and could hear London in the sewer below. Officers Charley Fojtik and Stanley McFadden arrived and went into the sewer to search for London. Every officer in the city was called in to assist and to cover various exit points from the sewer.

The superintendent of Public Works, Fred Mammel, and Civil Engineer Erwin Carbeck, were called in to provide information about the sewer lines. The officers in the sewer continued to search for London, but stopped along the way to exit the sewer to get larger flashlights and a radio. Manhole covers were randomly lifted to assist the officers below, in the hope of finding London.

Officers Fojtik and McFadden had to crawl through sewer pipes that were less than three feet wide. The search wound below the city' streets for more than two hours. Finally, after two hours of searching, Officers Fojtik and McFadden found the suspect in the sewer below the 700 block of S. Forest, some distance away from Iroquois. Officer Landis and London were taken to St. Joseph's Hospital and were treated and released. London was prosecuted for his escape and for assault with intent to commit murder, for his attack against Officer Landis.

Officer Critically Injured

Ann Arbor Police Officer Arvil Patton was critically injured on May 24, 1964, as a result of a high-`speed chase. Patton was chasing a 1963 model station wagon that was being driven by a 15-year-old. This youth had taken the car without his parent's permission and his father phoned the police department to report the incident.

Officer Patton first observed the vehicle at W. Stadium and Jackson Ave. The pursuit then started and lasted over 15 miles. During the chase the youth ran three cars off the road, drove through numerous traffic control devices, made three attempts to ram head on into on-coming patrol vehicles and drove through two roadblocks.

The accident occurred as Officer Patton drove his patrol car next to the fleeing youth's. The youth slammed the side of his car into Officer Patton's. Officer Patton almost lost control, but recovered control of the patrol vehicle. He then drove back next to the suspect vehicle and the youth again rammed the squad car. This sent Officer Patton's patrol car careening out of control and smashing into a steel light pole. The patrol car then rolled end over end and then twice turned over sideways.

The result of the crash sent Officer Patton through the windshield. The back of his head hit the pavement fifteen feet in front of the car. Officer Patton was taken to the University Hospital in critical condition. He suffered a double fracture of the skull and several broken ribs.

The youth's vehicle had also careened out of control and crashed. The youth was unhurt and fled from the vehicle, but he was apprehended a short distance away. As they were arresting him, he attempted to take the revolver belonging to Officer Dale Buckland.

Once at the police station the youth admitted to intentionally ramming Officer Patton's patrol vehicle stating, “I was in enough trouble and I did not want to get in more by being caught. I am sorry the officer is hurt, I should have been killed.”

He also stated after stealing the car he drove to the westside, where he tried to commit suicide by inhaling carbon monoxide from the vehicle. When this attempt failed, he drove on W. Stadium towards Jackson, where he was spotted by Officer Patton.

Officer Patton was in the hospital for several weeks, but eventually recovered from his injuries.

Help Wanted

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Continuing from the 1950's, the department had trouble recruiting qualified officers. These times mirrored the early 50's, as the city made a plea for qualified applicants. In 1965, the department was short nine men. The starting salary for rookie officers was $5538 a year and officers were required to change shifts every month. City Personnel Director, Joseph Frisinger, admitted police work was not an occupation where much is given but “much is expected.” Although the department was desperate for men, it would not lower its hiring standards. Many prospective recruits were washed out due to background investigations and “personality defects.”

A bit of controversy erupted between the police and sheriff's department, over comments made by Chief Gainsley and Personnel Director Frisinger in September of 1965. Five city patrolmen resigned from the department and three of them took jobs with the sheriff's department. When interviewed by the Ann Arbor News as to why, both Chief Gainsley and Frisinger said that discipline was the major reason why the officers left.

Chief Gainsley stated, “This department's standards are admittedly high and those standards will not be lowered or altered. This is a time when the maintenance of a good department demands that proper regulations be observed.”

Frisinger stated, “The reason this department is outstanding is that the highest standards possible have been maintained. Those standards include a tight code of discipline required of all officers. This code is to be encouraged and has made the department what is today. To change or reduce the degree of discipline would be to weaken the agency.”

Frisinger admitted the “tight rein” maintained on the patrolmen might cause a morale problem which could cost the department men. “But it would be a mistake to lower the standards of discipline now enforced by Chief Gainsley and his command officers, simply to keep men from resigning,” he said. Frisinger also said that it was possible that some of the men who recently left the department “feel that another agency will enforce less discipline on them.”

Needless to say Sheriff Harvey thought this was an indictment of the sheriff's department and it's men. He registered a strong protest that his department was not “lax on discipline.” Sheriff Harvey stated, “I don't wish to argue terms with anyone but the conclusion left seems to be that we operate a very loose, undisciplined department. This is not only untrue, but unfair to 50 good officers who have accepted and upheld an honest, fair system of departmental discipline.”

In August of 1966, the testing procedures for police officers came under fire from local civil rights groups. These groups stated the testing procedures favored white, middle class males. The department used the Army's “alpha test” as part of its hiring process. This test, said the civil rights groups, had questions in it that persons in the lower classes had no exposure to. One of the questions on the test asked, “In what novel or play does Portia play a leading role?”

City Personnel Director Joseph Frisinger defended the test and process stating from 1964 to 1966, the city received 232 applicants from white males and only 10 from black ones. Of the 10, four were offered employment with the police department.

Frisinger did say that the city leaders and police command were concerned about the low number of minority candidates. It was felt that for the “sake of the community,” police command needed to find a way to attract more minority candidates. Frisinger did meet with the civil rights leaders to go over the test and possible changes to it.

The problems of hiring qualified officers continued and this forced council to approve a 5% wage increase in 1967. With this raise the starting salary for officers was $6,188 a year. City Administrator Guy Larcom stated, “The police department hired 35 officers in the last two years, but had lost 35 to other police departments and firms. This being due to the rate of pay.”

Retirement of Police Chief Rolland Gainsley

On September 8, 1966, Chief Barney Gainsley announced his retirement from the Ann Arbor Police Department. He had been chief since 1960, when Casper Enkemann retired. The chief retired with over 31 years with the police department. Chief Gainsley left the department to accept a position as head of the University of Michigan's Department of Public Safety.

Barney Gainsley started with the Ann Arbor Police Department on April 4, 1935. He was sworn in by then chief, Lewis Fohey. He had come to Ann Arbor in 1930 and went into the service station business. At his gas station, many of his customers were police officers, one being Police Chief Fohey himself. He told the chief he was interested in police work and the chief urged him to apply. Initially, he did not take up the chief's invitation, but did when Officer Clifford Stang was murdered. Chief Gainsley was moved by Officer Stang's murder stating. “I figured if Sid (Officer Stang) believed in what he was doing so much that he'd give his life for it, it must be something pretty special.”

He was very concerned with civil rights and felt strongly about his officers protecting these rights. He stated, “If we deny to one person the rights given him by the constitution, we're striking at the very system which the badge represents. Every conscientious officer knows this.”

Looking back on his career, he stated if he had to do it over again, “I would try to have more education before I ever went on the job. Education, training, instruction, these are things which will bring the police field up to the standard of a profession it deserves. I look for the day when only men with some college background will be accepted as patrolmen. I look for municipal governments to sponsor officers going to college, attending courses in sociology, psychology and related fields. We need to learn and to keep on learning.”

Chief Barney Gainsley died of a heart attack on April 21, 1981. He lived at 1400 Iroquois with his family for over forty years. He acquired the nickname “Barney” when he was caught speeding by a neighbor when he was a teenager. The neighbor told his father, “He drives like Barney Oldfield (a famous race car driver of the day). You better tell him to slow down.” From that day on the nickname “Barney” stuck.

Officer John Biederman also left the department in September of 1966. He wore the “number 1” badge for years, as he started with the department in 1940. Until recently, badge number assignments were made on seniority. The number “1” badge went to the patrolman with the most seniority. When the officer with badge “1” retired, this badge was given to the number “2” man and on down the line. This, of course, led to the constant changing of badge numbers and the practice was stopped in the late 1960's.

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Officer Biederman had been a sergeant from 1946 to 1951. He found being a supervisor very stressful and told me it was not worth the extra $1 a day. In 1951 he asked Chief Enkemann if he could return to patrol as an officer and this was granted. He went to the traffic section for a short period of time as a motorcycle officer and then was placed in charge of the city's traffic lights and parking meters. At that time an officer was responsible for their maintenance and repair and Officer Biederman was to became an expert in the repair of these items.

When Officer Biederman retired he complained of the change in police work. He stated, “When I joined the department in 1940, there was still a lot of respect in people for the law and the men who were chosen to enforce it. But that is all gone now. Today a police officer has to take verbal and even physical abuse, that was unheard of years past.”

When I began this book, Officer Biederman was still alive, living at 825 Miller. He had lived in this house his entire life, as it was passed down to him from his parents. Officer Biederman died in 1999.

Lt. H. D. Schluple was another officer that retired from the police department in 1966. He began his career with the department in 1937 and retired as a lieutenant. Upon retiring he echoed some of Officer Biederman's concerns about law enforcement stating, “If I had to do it all over again, I wouldn't take this kind of job. There's too much grief, too much trouble. The hours are poor and the pay is bad.”

Appointment of Police Chief Walter Krasny

Due to the pending retirement of Chief Gainsley, three Ann Arbor Command Officers tested for the vacant police chief's position. Walter Krasny, who had been appointed as the interim chief, Captain Harold Olsen and Lt. Eugene Staudenmaier were the three applicants. These three went before a panel of three police executives, who graded their presentations. The results were sent to City Administrator Guy Larcom who, with city council's approval, appointed Acting Chief Walter Krasny to the position of police chief. Chief Krasny was officially named police chief on October 3, 1966.

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Chief Krasny was a long serving member of the department, who received his start in police work through an innocent encounter with Ann Arbor Police Chief Lewis Fohey in the early 1930's. At that time Krasny was delivering ice in Whitmore Lake, where Chief Fohey had a cottage. Chief Fohey was impressed with Krasny's athletic ability and told him to apply with the department.

When Krasny turned 21, he took the chief up on the offer and was hired in 1939. He slowly worked his way up through the department, receiving numerous promotions and commendations along the way. Chief Krasny was highly thought of by department members and was well received as chief of police.

When Chief Krasny took over as chief he was faced with many substantial issues. As the deputy chief's position was vacant, he was under pressure to appoint an African American to this spot. Needless to say, this was not an easy issue to deal with as the department did not have one black command officer at that time, although this would change within weeks with the promotion of Officer Eddie Owens to sergeant. Civil rights groups were demanding the chief appoint a black to this position. The Human Rights Commission sent a resolution to City Administrator Guy Larcom urging “the naming of a Negro to a command position in the police department.” Mr. Larcom said he would not go “outside of the department to fill the post, as top command appointments are made by the chief with my approval.”

Interestingly enough, the deputy chief position was not filled and was eliminated for years. It is not known if the chief thought it would not be worth the trouble to appoint a white command officer to the position and alienate the black community, or if he felt the position was not needed.

Tensions were extremely high between the black community and the police department. I have found many accounts of near riots between black youths and officers during this period. Luckily for the department, Chief Krasny was instrumental in alleviating this tension, due to a series of meetings with local civil rights leaders and community activists.

The chief was also faced with a drastic manpower shortage with 15 positions remaining unfilled. In one of his first official orders, he stated he would launch an “intensive” recruiting drive to attempt to fill these positions.

The chief was also under pressure to review the citizen complaint process against officers and ways to improve it. Many attempts and suggestions were made to the chief to improve this process. One such suggestion came in 1966, when City Administrator Guy Larcom recommended the creation of an advisory committee to handle these complaints. Larcom suggested this board to the city council, but did not feel it would field many complaints.

Under Larcom's proposed system a complaint would be investigated by a command officer within the police department. The advisory committee would be used when the complaint could not be resolved.

Making up this board would be the police chief, a police officer, the city attorney, the city human relations director, three “Negro” leaders and two “white” citizens. The committee would be appointed by the city administrator. Originally some council members had asked for the creation of a citizen's review board and this was probably seen as a compromise. After this board made its recommendation, Larcom would then go to the chief to, “work out the problem.”

One must remember that this was during the civil rights struggle and there was deep mistrust between the black community and the police department, not only in Ann Arbor, but nationwide. Chief Krasny countered with his own proposal. His would ensure that all complaints would be investigated, no matter how trivial. He stated the entire procedure would be “documented, presented to the city administrator and council, then published so that all officers and citizens of Ann Arbor would be aware of the procedure followed in registering the complaints.”

Chief Krasny's suggestion to council was adopted, but many were distrustful of this new complaint policy. Councilman H. C. Curry thought that some citizens would be hesitant to file complaints directly to the police department.

Promotion of Ann Arbor's First Black Command Officer

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Shortly after his promotion, Chief Krasny promoted three officers to sergeants, one of them being very significant. On October 27, 1966, Corporals Dale Heath, Tom Minick and Officer Eddie Owens were promoted to the rank of sergeant.

Significant about the promotions was the fact that Officer Owens was the police department's first black command officer. Sgt. Owens was hired by the department in 1953. He had served with the Army during World War Two and had achieved the rank of sergeant there.

Sgt. Owens was eventually promoted to the rank of lieutenant and was in charge of the department's Youth Bureau. Sgt. Owens handled his new assignment, and the pressure that accompanied it, superbly and was very well liked by departmental personnel.

Formation of the Ann Arbor Police Officer's Association

In November of 1966, the Ann Arbor Police Officers Association was re-established after two failed attempts to establish a police union for Ann Arbor Officers. Officer Darwin Cullin was elected as the first president of the association. The purpose stated for the formation of the association ranged from a vow to seek “economic stability” and the promise to provide legal representation to officers if needed. One of the keys to this was the protection for the officers against unwarranted and baseless charges of “police brutality.” The constitution of the association also pledged to assist financially, officers' families in the case of a line of duty death.

When the association was formed it included only patrol officers, of which there were 41 at the time. Funds for the association's operation were provided through dues, taken from the officers. Interestingly, Officer Cullin's tenure as president was very short as he was promoted in December of 1966 and was forced to resign from the association. Officer Don Johnson was then appointed as the president. The association was recognized by city council on January 19, 1969, as the exclusive bargaining unit for patrol officers. In 1974, city council passed a resolution which allowed limited duty officers and communications operators the right to join the association.

Robbery and Shootout at the Holiday Inn

A bizarre robbery occurred at the Holiday Inn, which was located at 2900 Jackson Avenue, on October 24, 1966. A lone man, later identified as Richard Hill, entered the bar of the Holiday Inn and ordered a drink. He took a sip of the drink and told the bartender he would be back and walked out to the lobby. While there he pulled out a pistol and began waving it in the air. He yelled to the clerk that it was a “stick-up” and ordered her to give him all the money that was in the cash register.

Once this was done, Hill ran to the restaurant and went from table to table, stealing wallets and purses from the stunned patrons. When Hill reached the table of David Gunning, he still had the gun in his hand. Mr. Gunning would later tell police that he thought Hill was actually part of a prank and not a robbery. Gunning smiled at Hill as he approached his table and Hill reacted by taking the pistol and smashing it across Gunning's forehead, leaving him bloodied.

Hill then went to a table containing a family with small children. He reached into his pocket and took $40 that he had just stolen from a man sitting nearby and gave it to the mother of the children stating, “Take this and buy the kids some diapers.”

He continued to move from table to table stating, “I'm a professional thief. I might be shot before I leave here.”

As he approached the cash register in the restaurant, one of the hotel employees took the money out of it so Hill could not steal it. When he approached the register and ordered her to give him the money inside, she simply told him “there's nothing in there.” He ordered her three times to open the register and she told him to “open it yourself.” He left the register area, then resumed going from table to table robbing people.

As he did the employee at the register, Mary Branham, ran out of the restaurant and phoned the police. Officer Charlie Fleming was the first officer on the scene and as he drove up, a very nervous witness described the suspect to him.

Officer Fleming went to the rear of the hotel and entered it through the kitchen door, while other officers entered through the main entrance. Hill observed the officers coming through the front door and crouched down, aiming the pistol at them.

Officer Fleming observed this and believed Hill was about to ambush the officers. Fleming ran toward Hill, who was intently watching the officers coming in the front door.

Officer Fleming would later say that he did not want to shoot Hill, as the restaurant was crowded and he feared that one of the patrons could be injured. Instead he decided to knock Hill's pistol out of his hand and did so as he slammed the butt of his gun into Hill's arm. Hill had never seen Officer Fleming approach him and dropped the gun due to the impact.

Other officers ran to assist and placed Hill into custody. All of the money stolen was recovered and Officer Fleming was cited for his bravery. Chief Krasny stated, “This was a situation in which someone could easily have been killed from gun play. Officer Fleming displayed remarkably good judgement under extreme pressure. He did a most commendable job.”

Hotel employees barely recovered from this robbery when a dramatic shootout occurred at the Holiday Inn on December 21, 1966. Holiday Inn employees observed three men in a suspicious vehicle cruising around the parking lot and phoned the police department. Detective Sgt. Cal Hicks was dispatched to the hotel and saw the car parked on an entrance ramp to I–94. He observed two individuals, later identified as John Etherton and Roger Gorte, exit the vehicle armed with a rifle and a shotgun. Etherton was carrying a .20 gauge shotgun and Gorte had a .22 rifle. The two began walking toward the Holiday Inn while Etherton's brother, Glen, waited in the car. Sgt. Hicks called for more help and 11 city police cars responded, carrying 22 officers.

Etherton and Gorte walked towards the hotel carrying the weapons, while wearing ski masks. While they did so, police communications called the hotel and told the employees to hide. Not all of the employees got the word however and as the suspects entered the hotel, they found one employee cleaning the floor. One of the suspects walked up to the employee and struck him in the head with the butt of the rifle, causing the employee to fall to the floor.

The suspects looked for other employees but all had hidden, due to the call from police communications. Since they could not find anyone to rob and possibly thinking something was wrong, the suspects left the building.

As they stepped outside, they were immediately confronted by Lt. Marv Dann, Sgt. Hicks and Officers Johnson and Bunten. The suspects were told to drop their weapons, but Etherton spun around toward the officers. Sgt. Hicks and the two officers immediately opened fire striking Etherton, who was struck in the chest and fell to the ground, dropping the shotgun.

On the ground he attempted to retrieve the shotgun, but was pounced on by the officers. He was eventually transported to St. Joseph's Hospital in “grave condition.” Gorte had dashed back into the Holiday Inn when the shooting started. Gorte was fired upon by the officers as he was running. He was not struck and continued running through the hotel. He fled out the rear of the hotel, where he initially eluded capture, but was arrested a hour later after a massive search. Officer Robert Lee observed him walking near Maple Road and placed him under arrest.

Officers Rady and Trombley approached the suspect's vehicle, to arrest Etherton's brother, Glen. He observed the officers and attempted to run from them yelling, “You'll have to shoot me to keep me.” Luckily for him the officers did not shoot him but chased him down and placed him under arrest.

Two other bizarre shootings occurred a few months later. On March 25, 1967, a robbery suspect, James Connors, was shot with his own gun by Ann Arbor Police Sergeant Robert Conn. The incident started in Jackson, where Connor and two other suspects allegedly broke into a medical center, where they overpowered the night watchman and stole 8500 capsules of controlled narcotics. The watchman was tied up, but was able to free himself and give the Jackson Police a description on the suspects and their vehicle. A blockade was set up and Officer Lloyd Stearns observed the suspect's vehicle on I–94. Officer Stearns notified communications that he had the vehicle and that he was eastbound on I–94. The suspect's vehicle exited onto Jackson Avenue and Officer Stearns chased the vehicle for two miles before forcing it off the road. He approached the vehicle while one of the suspects had a 9 millimeter handgun hidden under his coat, pointing it at Officer Stearns. As Officer Stearns was speaking with the suspects, Sgt. Conn, Officers Tinsey and Racine arrived.

The three suspects were ordered to exit the vehicle and a search of Connors revealed a loaded .38 caliber revolver. Officer Racine handed Connors weapon to Sgt. Conn and was in the process of handcuffing him, when he whirled around and began running.

Officer Tinsey and Racine ordered him to stop and withdrew their service revolvers and began firing at him. None of their shots hit Connors and Sgt. Conn, who was holding Connors weapon, began firing it at Connors. Connors was hit with one of these rounds in the back, between the shoulder blades. The other two suspects offered no resistance and were arrested without incident. All of the narcotics were recovered and Connors eventually recovered from his wounds.

Chief Krasny commended the officers stating their work was “alert, determined police work, a real credit to the officers involved.” Even City Administrator Larcom was impressed, calling the arrests “excellent police work. Law enforcement is a difficult field and in this incident the officers acquitted themselves quite well.”

In what the Ann Arbor News described as one of the most “action packed dramas ever involving local police,” four armed men were arrested after a daring robbery.

The incident began as Mr. and Mrs. Donald Clowe were leaving the Waterfall Supper Club at 2161 W. Stadium, of which Clowe was the manager. As they were leaving the Club, four suspects were waiting near-by in a vehicle. The suspects knew that Clowe was the manager and thought he would be making a money drop from the days receipts. The suspects did not know that another of the Club's employee's was responsible for that nights money drop.

Two of the armed suspects approached the Clowes and robbed Mrs. Clowe of her purse and Mr. Clowe of his wallet. The suspects realized their mistake about the Club's money and fled back into the waiting vehicle. Mr. and Mrs. Clowe ran back into the Club and phoned the department with the description of the suspects and vehicle.

As the dispatcher was still taking the call from the Clowes, a radio transmission from Officer Fojtik came over the air. Officer Fojtik radioed dispatch, “Car 66, in pursuit of a 1966 Chevrolet, east on W. Liberty. Request assistance.” As it turned out, the suspects left the parking lot at the Club without headlights and Officer Fojtik was attempting to stop them for this infraction.

Officer Tinsey responded to Miller and Chapin as the suspect vehicle turned north on Seventh and east on Miller. Officer Tinsey parked his patrol car across Miller, in an attempt to force the suspects to stop. The suspect vehicle drove around the patrol car and one of the suspects reached out the window and began firing at Officer Tinsey. One of the slugs lodged into the right rear door of the scout car and fortunately, Officer Tinsey was not hit.

The chase continued on and eventually the suspects entered northbound U.S.-23. Both Officers Fojtik and Tinsey continued in the pursuit as the suspects reached out of their windows and fired at the officers. The suspect vehicle then drove across the median and drove north in the south bound lanes of traffic at over 100 m.p.h.

Officer Tinsey followed this vehicle the wrong way down the highway, while Officer Fojtik continued on in the northbound lanes. The suspects and Officer Tinsey had several near misses as southbound traffic attempted to avoid the two vehicles. One of the southbound drivers, Donald Warner, swerved to avoid the suspects vehicle, but drove head on into Officer Tinsey's patrol car. Luck was with Officer Tinsey, Warner and his passenger, who all escaped the head on wreck with minor injuries. Officer Tinsey was now out of the chase however.

Officer Fojtik continued on directly across from the suspect vehicle that continued the wrong way up the highway. Officer Fojtik fired at the suspect's vehicle, striking it once but not disabling it.

The suspects' vehicle finally went out of control, two miles north of Officer Tinsey's accident. Officer Fojtik crossed the expressway and approached the suspect vehicle, but all four of the occupants had fled on foot.

Sheriff's Deputy Joseph Catalana was responding to assist and pulled up to Officer Tinsey's crash scene to help. He was backing his cruiser up, toward Tinsey's, when his vehicle was struck by a southbound car. Catalana and the driver were uninjured, but now two patrol cars were inoperable.

Officer Lloyd Stearns was also in the southbound lane going north, heading towards Tinsey's accident scene. The patrol car was driven through oil, spilled during Officer Tinsey's crash and Officer Stearns lost control of the patrol car. The patrol car slammed into the median divider, rendering Officer Stearns' patrol car inoperable. Officer Stearns was not hurt, but now three patrol cars were inoperable.

Back at the suspects' vehicle, Captain Murray ordered all Ann Arbor Officers to this area. He also requested neighboring departments to respond to assist and over 30 officers from a half a dozen agencies arrived, with three search dogs and access to one airplane. A local service station operator, John Schneider, offered his airplane for use and Lt.'s Dann and Hawkins acted as observers, looking for the suspects on foot, while Schneider piloted it. The chase had started at 2:00 a.m. and it was now daybreak.

The search continued and Officer Ronald Lee finally observed two of the suspects on Whitmore Lake Road and placed them under arrest. The other two suspects were not apprehended and the search was called off.

Another wild shootout occurred on March 2, 1967, when officers attempted to stop a stolen vehicle.

Officer Stearns was on patrol when he observed a vehicle he knew to be stolen cruising around the University Hospital. Officer Stearns radioed for backup and Officers Jan Sumola and Robert Lee responded. They attempted to stop the stolen vehicle, but the driver would not pull over and the chase ensued.

The suspect forced numerous vehicles off the road during the chase and pedestrians ran from the streets as the suspect drove through the busy hospital area at high speeds at 1:30 p.m. The officers finally boxed the stolen vehicle in and the driver attempted to escape, smashing into Officer Stearns patrol vehicle. The impact threw Officer Stearns out of his vehicle and onto the pavement, where he suffered minor injuries.

The suspect then ran from his vehicle up a slope, near the hospital. All three officers drew their weapons and ordered the suspect to stop. As he continued running, the officers began firing warning shots, but the suspect kept fleeing.

Officers Lee and Stearns then fired at the fleeing suspect striking him twice. One bullet struck his left leg and the other lodged in his shoulder. Officers charged up the hill, placing the suspect under arrest, reading him his rights as he lay wounded. The suspect spent two weeks in the hospital recovering from his bullet wounds. The officers involved were praised by Chief Krasny who stated, “The reaction by these officers in pursuit of a fleeing felon was admirable. They performed well and did an excellent job in his capture.”

Retirement of Ann (Annie Oakley) Tapp

On August 28, 1967, Ann Tapp retired from the police department. She was one of the department's first policewomen, but was assigned to administrative duties. Ms. Tapp did carry a firearm and for years was the second best shooter in the police department. Her nickname was “Annie Oakley”, due to her skill with her firearm.

Also retiring in 1967 was Captain Hank Murray, who had been with the department for 28 years. Captain Murray was known as an excellent interrogator and handled many investigations during his 28 years. One interesting case occurred when he tackled the Shah of Iran, who had been arrested for a traffic violation while in Ann Arbor. The Shah had been taken to the police department and was incensed that he had been arrested. He bolted out of the front door to the police department and Captain Murray ran after him. Captain Murray had been a amateur boxing champion and quickly caught up to the Shah and tackled him to the ground. The Shah was taken back to the police department where the matter was then disposed of, since the Shah was a diplomat.

When Captain Murray retired he stated, “If I was 21 again, I'd do it all over. There were some heartaches, some disappointments along the way, but for the most part I enjoyed every minute of it. I liked the law, I liked to enforce it. And I liked helping people when I could. If a man can do what he likes best for most of his life, what more can he ask for.”

Police Explorers

The department's police explorers scout post was started in January of 1968. The purpose of the explorer post was the hope it would lead to a cadet program. Chief Krasny wanted the explorer post to be a training ground for future cadets. He was particularly interested in attracting teen-agers from minority groups in the community. Chief Krasny thought the explorer post was the “first and logical” step toward a cadet program.

Under this plan, the cadets would do work such as taking reports at the front desk. It was thought that the cadets would be from 18 to 20 years of age and when they reached their 21 birthday, they then would be hired as police officers. The first advisor for the explorers was Officer Robby Robinson, who was assigned to the Youth Bureau. While the explorer post did not turn into a cadet hiring process, it provided training and guidance to many local youth, many ofwhom went on to become officers.

The explorers post is still in existence and is guided by Officers Jamie Adkins and Renee Bush.

Mace is Issued

In February of 1968, the department issued mace to 21 patrol officers on an experimental basis. According to a newspaper article, “This new defensive weapon may make service revolvers and nightsticks obsolete.” Chief Krasny stated, “Police executives with whom I have talked, tell me this product is the best defensive weapon ever produced for an officer under physical attack.”

City Councilman H. C. Curry requested a study of possible ill effects to humans that were sprayed with mace. Curry had heard that the mace could be harmful if sprayed on an open wound. City Administrator Guy Larcom initiated an investigation and three independent doctors investigated and found the product to be safe.

The use of mace was short lived, due to an incident which originated from a traffic accident which occurred on March 17, 1968. When this incident was over, four arrests had been made, mace had been used three times and Officer John Bodenschatz had a bloodied and ripped uniform.

The incident began when a vehicle was traveling west on Summit near Main and made a right turn. The vehicle veered out of control and struck a utility pole. The impact injured the driver and his two passengers. Officer Bodenschatz was sent to the scene and called for an ambulance, while a crowd of 50 people gathered to watch the events.

The owner of the car had lent it to a friend. The owner was called and told his car was in an accident, so he came to the scene. The vehicle had split the pole in half and was being supported by the wires and the vehicle. The owner began to push the car away with the help of his friends but he was told by Officer Bodenschatz to leave the car alone. The owner refused to listen and was told numerous times to leave the vehicle.

The owner continued and Officer Bodenschatz stepped between the vehicle and its owner. The owner grabbed Bodenschatz by the arm and the two began to fight. Officer Bodenschatz and the owner fell to the ground while the crowd gathered around them. Bodenschatz was kicked and punched by the crowd, while other officers attempted to free him. Corporal Don Johnson waded through the crowd and squirted his mace at the owner of the vehicle, who was still fighting with Officer Bodenschatz. The owner of the car was subdued and placed in a patrol car. The crowd attempted to free him, but were fought off by the officers.

The crowd dispersed but went to St. Joseph's Hospital, where the occupants of the car had been taken. Hospital authorities called the police due to this crowd, which was gathering in the emergency room and overflowing into the x-ray room.

When the officers arrived they ordered the crowd to leave, but were greeted by obscenities. Arrests were then made and the use of the mace again had to be used. At the station, mace was again used in security as the prisoners were fighting with the officers.

Chief Krasny was livid about the incident and the attack on the officer. He issued a stern “get tough” warning stating, “Everyone who may be involved better get one thing straight right now. We're not going to tolerate attacks on police officers, like this one last night. We intend to enforce the law. We're going to stop fights and violence in the streets and public disturbances. We're going to use the weapons and the means available to us and we are not going to back down to mob rule or mob violence.”

This incident sparked concern within the black community. The NAACP questioned the safety of mace and the appropriateness of it. It was believed by them that the mace could cause serious health effects on those who it was used against. Due to their concerns, doctors studied the effects of the mace at the university and found no ill side effects from exposure to it. This did nothing to quell the outcry against its use, however.

On March 19, 1968, Chief Krasny decided to suspend the department's use of mace due to the controversy. The city council was debating it's use at a scheduled council meeting, when Chief Krasny entered and made the announcement that he would end the use of mace. Council had been debating whether or not to order Chief Krasny to suspends its use.

Chief Krasny stated to the council members, “If it's a difficult decision for council to make, then we'll make one. We'll suspend the order to use mace and leave it at that.”

Prior to giving the order, Chief Krasny was asked by Mayor Wendell Hulcher if he would suspend the use of mace voluntarily. Chief Krasny stated, “If you can assure me that the people won't fight my men at every turn, then I'll suspend the use of it.”

“Who can give these assurances?” Hulcher asked. “That's the problem,” the chief replied, “no one.”

The department would be without mace for the next twenty years.

FBI Investigation

Mace was not the only controversy that dogged the department in 1968. In November of that year, the local ACLU filed a civil rights complaint against the department through the Justice Department. This complaint led to speculation that the department would be investigated by the FBI. The charges ranged from civil rights violations to illegal entry and illegal searches. There were rumors that the FBI investigation would lead to indictments against Ann Arbor Officers.

Needless to say, Chief Krasny was not happy about the investigation and at first could not even find out if there was one. Officials at the Justice Department further confused the situation. Their spokesman, Kenneth McIntyre, gave a statement about the potential investigation that was ambiguous at best. McIntyre did state that charges could be brought against the local police department under a 100 year old civil rights act which protected American citizens from being deprived of due process of law.

Chief Krasny spoke with local and Detroit FBI agents who were unaware of any investigation. The chief was incensed over McIntyre's statements, saying the original news release from McIntyre “indicts us even though we had no official knowledge of the charges or of the accusers. At the very best this action shows a lack of professional courtesy on the part of the U.S. Justice Department.” The chief stated that since the charges were criminal in nature his officers “who are accused would be given all possible legal protection. A police officer forfeits none of his constitutional rights when he becomes a public official.”

The chief felt the department's crackdown on narcotics traffic could have led to the investigation. “We've made numerous arrests, have broken up a good part of a narcotics ring, been keeping the heat on steadily,” he said. “It's possible people who are starting to feel that heat figure a red herring by way of a federal investigation will slow us down. It won't.”

It was finally found that the charges stemmed from a drug raid which occurred at 1513 S. University. Allegedly 12 officers raided an apartment there, whose occupants were suspected of narcotics dealing. The front door was kicked in without a search warrant after the occupants failed to open the door. Three different searches took place over a three week period and each time no narcotics were discovered. Depositions were taken from the occupants and forwarded to the council members.

Chief Krasny stated his officers had probable cause to allow the search. “The information we had led us to believe that something more serious was going on in the apartment,” he said. “On the first search, we had a search warrant. On the second, we had criminal warrants for people we suspected lived in the apartment. And the third time we had good reason to believe that a life was being threatened at the apartment.”

The Detroit office of the FBI admitted on December 2, that two agents from that office were in fact looking into the complaint. A spokesmen for the FBI stated the investigation began immediately after the complaint was received. All information was to be turned over to the Civil Rights Division of the Justice Department. These agents met with Chief Krasny for four hours on December 3 and the chief would not make any comments after the meeting.

The city attorney's office issued a report on the incident on January 13, 1969. The report found the search conducted by the officers was legal and justified. The police department had received a call that a knife fight was going on in the apartment. When the officers could not get anyone to come to the door, it was forced open. The report concluded that the officers did have reason to believe a felony had been committed and their procedure for entering the building was correct.

The FBI did not report on any violations committed by Ann Arbor Officers. This did nothing to lead to a smoother relationship or gain the trust of many people in the community. Due to the changing times, there was tremendous distrust between the police and the citizens. This point is illustrated by a resolution that city council attempted to pass in October of 1969.

This resolution would have required officers to hand out a pamphlet to anyone that they had arrested, searched or stopped. This pamphlet would describe citizen's rights when dealing with the police. The proposal would also have required the officers to fill out a police “contact slip” to everyone they spoke with.

Chief Krasny did not think highly of the idea. He stated the slip system would be impractical, and in an emergency situation where many persons are contacted, handing out this slip would be “ludicrous.”

Some citizens were also not happy about this resolution and attempted to recall Mayor Harris as “he has permitted interference with the lawful and necessary operation of the Ann Arbor Police Department in its attempt to maintain the public peace and prevent criminal acts.”

The resolution was never passed.

Kidnapping of Officers Lapides and Munn

The campus area was highly charged in April of 1968. Drugs were rampant and the department was attempting to find ways to deal with this new and unique problem. This was before the department had an undercover unit, so these types of operations were used sparingly and when used, the officers had little training.

To try and fight the drugs on campus, it was decided that two new officers, Gary Lapides and Wendall Munn, would be sent undercover in an attempt to “meet people and buy narcotics.” This assignment turned out to be more than the two new officers bargained for, to say the least.

On April 9, Officer Lapides met with an alleged drug dealer at the Michigan Union. They left that location and went to a restaurant on S. University. There they met with two other people and one of them asked if there were any “narcs” at the table, before they smoked some marijuana. Officer Lapides later stated he simulated smoking the marijuana and afterwards, the group went to an apartment at 337 E. Jefferson.

At that location Officer Lapides bought a tin of marijuana and some speed from a dealer in the apartment. This dealer was armed with a handgun and brandished it when there was a knock on the door. At the door was “Larry”, who said he could supply large amount of drugs to undercover Officer Lapides.

Officer Lapides then left the apartment and picked up Officer Munn. When they returned, Officer Lapides went in and asked if Munn could also enter the apartment. This was allowed, but once inside both officers were searched by the four occupants. One of the subjects pointed a gun at the officers while they were searched.

Discovered on Officer Munn was a .32 caliber revolver and a notebook which had writings in it, indicating he was a police officer. The notebook was passed to the four occupants and Munn was told if he was a police officer, he would be killed.

Officer Lapides later testified that one of the suspects picked up Munn's revolver, loaded it, cocked the hammer and aimed it at him. He pulled the trigger, but it did not go off. Another person entered the apartment, took the gun, aimed it at Officer Lapides and pulled the trigger several times, but again the gun did not go off.

The four were now holding the two officers hostages as a search of Lapides also revealed that he was a police officer. Inside of his wallet, they discovered a gun permit, which had the words, “Police Officer”, written under the section for occupation.

Both officers were being screamed at, threatened with death and slapped around. They were told that they would be given an overdose of LSD, so their deaths would look like an overdose. Two of the occupants of the apartment then left to look for a large quantity of LSD, to force on the officers, while the other two held them at gunpoint. The two later returned, unable to locate any LSD.

At this point the dealers decided to retrieve the drugs that Officer Lapides had bought earlier, which he had taken to his apartment when he went to pick up Officer Munn. Officer Lapides was taken by gunpoint to get the drugs, as the kidnappers wanted to retrieve any evidence tying them to the officers.

When Officer Lapides was returned to the apartment, he and Officer Munn were forced to smoke hash. Officer Munn then feigned sleep, while Officer Lapides sat on the floor. In a bizarre turn of events, they were ordered out of the apartment and told by the kidnappers that they had “nothing on us.”

As the officers exited the apartment, there was a change of heart by the kidnappers who chased the frightened officers. The officers escaped to a near-by home, where they phoned police headquarters. The four subjects in the apartment were later arrested and charged with kidnapping.

Needless to say, this experience was not what the department had in mind when it sent the officers undercover onto campus.

Officer Cygan's Ride

Officer Richard Cygan went for an interesting ride on May 14, 1968, which started when he went to back up Officers Cook and Racine on a traffic stop. The driver of the vehicle refused to identify himself when asked by Officer Racine. Officer Cygan exited his scout car to see if he could assist.

Officer Racine attempted to open the driver's door when the vehicle suddenly accelerated. Officer Cygan reached inside the car and attempted to pull the keys from the ignition. The driver, Bobby Ross, sped off with Officer Cygan being dragged by the vehicle.

Officer Cygan was dragged for 478 feet at a high rate of speed, when Ross slammed on the brakes. Officer Cygan flew from the car and landed in the road in front of 405 N. Main. His head struck the pavement, but luckily he was wearing a helmet which cracked upon impact. It was quite common for officers to wear their helmets while on patrol during this era.

Officer Cook had jumped into Officer Cygan's patrol vehicle and was chasing the suspect vehicle. He nearly ran over Officer Cygan when he was thrown from the suspect's vehicle. Ross fled to a near-by home, where he was captured. Officer Cygan was taken to the University Hospital, where he was treated for head, hand and knee injuries.

Human Rights Commission

Another issue which stirred a lot of debate within the police department, was the City's Human Rights Commission (HRC), which focused on matters of race. A subgroup of the HRC was formed in 1968 to focus on police-community relations, especially the relations with the black community.

The first meeting of the subgroup and citizens took place on March 14, 1968. Remember the civil unrest that the country was having during this period to appreciate the mistrust between the police department and the black community.

The meeting was interesting as it started with a local attorney speaking, at one point warning that the police department refused to “even admit there was a problem.” Instead of rallying around him, members of the crowd became upset at what they perceived was an outsider, telling them what they should and should not fear. Once this issue was settled, those in attendance questioned Chief Krasny as to why he was attempting to recruit 50 auxiliary police officers. They felt that this was an attempt for the department to target the black community.

They also expressed concerns over rumors that the fire department was being trained in the use of firearms and the dispersion of chemical mace for crowd control. Chief Krasny denied this, saying the fire department was never asked or been recruited for either of these activities.

As for the auxiliaries, the chief defended their use and necessity to control costs associated with university functions, including traffic control.

Complaints against officers were often investigated by the Human Rights Commission but these investigations did not have any disciplinary authority over the officers. Due to the climate of distrust, Chief Krasny decided to release all minor and major infractions found against an officers, to the public. He stated, “This was a hard decision to come to, but we have our dirty linen just like anyone else and it is better that the public should get the information from us, rather than picking up rumors here and there.”

The chief spoke of the pressure the officers were under due to the outsiders constantly judging them, stating, “Whenever one of my men does something in the line of duty he's threatened with the loss of his job, a complaint filed with the Human Relations Commission or with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People or with the state Civil Rights Commission. This type of thing is bound to build up pressure in a man. Things are pulling further apart today than they have for the past 29 years.”

The Human Rights Commission was also involved in the controversial resignation of Officer Wade Wagner, on May 10, 1969. Wagner arrested a HRC undercover staff investigator, for disorderly conduct at the Star Bar on N. Main. The investigator had been sent there due to claims that discrimination was occurring at the bar. While there, Officer Wade Wagner was sent to the bar to investigate a disorderly person complaint.

The investigator was arrested by Officer Wagner for disorderly conduct and taken to the police station. Both sides would differ drastically on why the investigator was arrested. While in an interview room, he was allegedly hit twice and knocked to the floor while handcuffed. He was released on bond and a complaint was later made with the Human Rights Commission. Needless to say this caused a major controversy for the department. Many felt and still do, that Officer Wagner was “set up” by the HRC.

Within days an internal investigation was launched by the department and the Human Rights Commission. The charges against the investigator were dropped and the bond money was returned.

Officer Wagner was suspended with pay and initially told his job was not in jeopardy. HRC Director David Cowley said the incident “is symbolic of what happens to black people when they are brought into the police station.”

Chief Krasny responded by saying Cowley's statement was a complete “falsehood.” Chief Krasny also stated, “The police are always accused of harassment and intimidation. But, the very same people making this accusation, used this method on a local merchant to prove their point and then decided to press the police officer into a confrontation.

“I was under the impression the staff of the Human Relations Commission was trained to use restraint and solve problems, not create them. The fact this person (the investigator) was a city employee, does not give him amnesty from arrest and I would expect an employee on assignment to conduct himself as a gentleman. Before the commission decides to start a testing program for the police, I would suggest they take a good look at their own staff and the manner in which they perform.”

On May 20, the report on the incident was complete and that same day Officer Wagner submitted his resignation with the police department. The completed report contained four major points:

  1. No criminal charges would be pressed against the investigator.
  2. Officer Wagner submitted his resignation from the Ann Arbor Police Department.
  3. The police department “recognized” that certain rules were violated and disciplinary action was “anticipated.”
  4. The city administrator would review policies and procedures of the Human Relations staff and would take whatever remedial or disciplinary action that was required.

This internal investigation was 80 pages long and over 30 witnesses were interviewed. It was found that the actions at the bar by the officer was proper, however, the city attorney did not authorize a warrant against the investigator.

The resignation of Officer Wagner did not end the controversy however, as on May 24, 1969, Washtenaw County Sheriff Douglas Harvey hired Wagner as a deputy. Ann Arbor Mayor Robert Harris blasted Harvey and the sheriff's department for the hiring.

Mayor Harris stated, “Sheriff Harvey just hired a police officer who resigned from the Ann Arbor Police Department while relieved from duty for suspected serious misconduct. After the investigation the deputy chief informed him if he did not resign, dismissal hearings would take place. The chief's decision was based entirely on the facts admitted by the officer himself.

“As one who has been shown these admissions, I can say that Sheriff Harvey undoubtedly uses lower standards to judge the fitness of police officers, than those used by the Ann Arbor Police Department. Sheriff Harvey's apparent disregard of the importance in professional police work of avoiding excessive force is a threat to the citizens of the county.”

Sheriff Harvey responded to the criticisms of his department and their personnel. “We were satisfied (after conducting a background investigation on Wagner) that the arrest made was legal and proper. We are also satisfied that the later incident occurred after a good deal of planning and provocation by the prisoner. If a person has no more respect for law and order and for the badge which represents it, than to take a swing at a policeman, he is asking for the firmest of treatment. It's about time the decent people in our society got some backbone and started supporting their law and their policeman. The investigator wasn't swinging at Wagner when he tried to slug him, he was swinging at every law abiding citizen in society. I would expect any officer of mine to react as quickly and decisively as did Wagner when attacked.”

The Human Relations Commission tried to stop the hiring of Wagner by going to the county commissioners, but were unsuccessful in doing so.

On June 11, 1969, Officer Wagner released a statement telling his side of the incident: “At 2:00 a.m. on May 10, 1969, I was one of three officers sent to the Star Bar to investigate a disorderly person complaint. The person said to be disorderly was observed in the bar by myself and the other officers. He displayed boisterous and demanding conduct. He turned aside a suggestion made by myself and other officers that he quiet down and when he continued in a disorderly manner he was arrested in order to maintain peace in the business place.

“At the station he was placed in the security section, the handcuffs removed and the booking procedure began. Because the prisoner, an investigator for the Human Relations Commission, continued in a belligerent manner, he was placed in a closed interview room. Normal booking procedures require an officer to search a prisoner for concealed contraband, personal property and proper identification. As I began this search of him, he resisted and made an overt act indicating his intent to strike me. I took defensive and positive action and subdued him. After I subdued him he identified himself for the first time as an HRC investigator and said to me: ‘Thank you officer. I have proved my point, haven't I? I'll have your job for this.’

“The department's community relations officer, assigned by Chief Krasny to investigate the incident, has obtained more than a dozen statements from persons in the bar at the time of arrest. All the statements substantiate the charge that the investigator was acting in a disorderly manner when arrested.

“However, the city attorney has stated publicly that he would not be prosecuted criminally in this incident. After a week of political maneuvering by the power structure of the city government, I was contacted by Chief Krasny and told that unless I submitted my resignation, I would be fired. In order to halt further harassing of myself and other police officers on the department by special interest groups in city hall, I resigned.

“Of course if the investigator had conducted himself properly in the first place while in the bar the entire incident could have been avoided. Instead, he chose to deliberately create a disturbance with the full consent and knowledge of his superior, who formulates ‘tests‘ for his employees.

“I regret and deplore the creation of this incident. But I more regret that an attempt has been made by self-interest groups in city hall to discredit the patrolmen of the Ann Arbor Police Department. These officers are among the finest and most dedicated men in the police profession. I am proud to have had the opportunity to work with them”.

Bombings Rock Ann Arbor

On September 29, 1968, Chief Krasny was sound asleep in his home, when he was startled out of his sleep by an explosion. This explosion occurred at the CIA office, which was located at 450 S. Main. The CIA had a local office to recruit prospective employees from the University.

Obviously, during the Vietnam War, the CIA was not the most popular federal agency and found itself the object of numerous protests. On the night of September 29, six sticks of dynamite were used to blow the office up. The sound of the blast could be heard throughout the city.

While no one initially took credit for the blast, it was assumed that a radical anti-war group was responsible. Chief Krasny called in members of the Detroit Police Department for assistance, as they had six bomb explosions in that city and they were thought to be related to the Ann Arbor bombing.

Less than three weeks later on October 14, another bomb exploded outside of the University's Institute of Science and Technology. This bomb blew apart the door and shattered 12 windows. No one was injured in either bombing.

Chief Krasny stated, “The concussion was apparently terrific. It was so powerful it sent a metal piece of a door rocketing down a hallway more than 80 feet and into a wooden door. The blast sucked the glass outward from the 12 windows. It broke and twisted the steel door frame like it was made of taffy.” It was believed the building was targeted as the university did classified research for the Air Force. The bombing was much more powerful than the one at the CIA office and dynamite was again suspected.

On June 1, 1969, a bomb sitting under the gas tank of a car exploded damaging the ROTC building, which is located near the intersection of N. University and Washtenaw. The blast caused a fire on the first and second floors of the building. The force of the explosion was so great pieces of the car were blown over the top of the building.

More than 60 windows were broken, including some on the second floor on the opposite end of the structure. Deputy Chief Olson stated there were no suspects initially and that the bombings were similar to the two which occurred in September at the CIA Office and in October at the University Institute of Science and Technology. No one was injured in the bombing.

In October of 1969, federal warrants charged White Panthers Pun Plamondon with conspiring to use dynamite to destroy federal property at the CIA office. Plamondon was also charged with the actual planting of the dynamite.

Plamondon was on the run until he was captured in July of 1970. He was traveling in Mackinaw County when he threw a beer can out of the car window and was stopped by local police. His identity was discovered and he was placed under arrest. Plamondon stated his capture, originating from the discarded beer can was “a lack of revolutionary discipline.”

He was held in prison until July of 1972, when the conspiracy charges were dropped by the government.

Dionysus in 69

While a play with nude cast members in today's culture would not cause much of a stir, “Dionysus in 69” did just that in January of 1969. “Dionysus in 69” was a play that was performed in the Michigan Union ballroom. This play was a modern adaptation of the Greek play “The Bacchae.”

Prior to the play, Chief Krasny met with a representative of the actors and told him that they would be arrested if any nudity took place in it. This was relayed to the actors, who did not take the chief's advice. They did exclude part of the play that was to call for the audience to strip and join the cast. The cast of the play felt that disrobing was their artistic freedom. There were two nudes scenes in the play and the actors were arrested by Ann Arbor Officer on charges of indecent exposure, ten people in all.

Interestingly enough the play was performed in Detroit just prior to it coming to Ann Arbor. At that location the group did not feel their “artistic freedom” was that important as they did not want to “confront the Detroit Police Department.” A spokesmen stated the atmosphere of the university was better than that of Detroit.

The director of the play stated members of the group would appeal the case all the way to the Supreme Court if they were convicted on the indecent exposure charges.

Student and Campus Unrest

One would have a hard time imagining the late 1960's and early 1970's if they were not from that era. This was a time of great social upheaval with the Vietnam War, drugs, the civil rights movement, the sexual revolution and an atmosphere that encouraged students to challenge “the establishment.”

S. University Street and the Diag were commonly referred to as the “People's Park.” This is the area that the hippies and students staged their protests. These protests often led to clashes with the Ann Arbor Police Department. City leaders were forced to deal with these issues, trying to deal with them as delicately as possible, often to the chagrin of some in the community who thought the “hippies” were being coddled.

Often these protests turned violent and in April of 1968, the National Guard was called up. All of the guardsmen in the lower peninsula were kept on stand-by duty due to the disorder. When the guardsmen were in Ann Arbor, they stayed at the National Guard Armory, which was located at the corner of Fifth and Ann. The guardsmen stayed there for a number of nights in April, due to student unrest. The National Guard Armory is now the site of condominiums, but on the face of the building in brick is still inscribed “Armory.”

Police officers were often painted as the “bad guys” in these incidents. An article from the Detroit News in June of 1969, describes a riot which occurred on S. University. The article begins by stating, “Club-swinging police again clashed with Ann Arbor's “street people.” The Detroit Free Press described the riot as “two nights of head busting clashes.”

In this particular riot, students were gathering on S. University for a self proclaimed “street party.” This was organized after a group of students had protested to the city council about alleged police harassment during the investigation of the “co-ed killings.” The crowd continued to “liberate” S. University as the street took on a festive air. One couple had a sex in the middle of the street while the crowd gathered around and cheered them on. Others danced, drank and set off fireworks.

The crowd grew more violent and a decision was by command officers to clear them. University President Robben Fleming pleaded with Deputy Chief Olson to give him more time to move back the crowd. Chief Olson agreed to 15 minutes but only 5 minutes elapsed before an officer was struck in the head by a rock and fell to the ground. The chief had seen enough and ordered the street cleared.

Police officials felt they had to move in and break up the crowd as it grew more violent and merchants along S. University were fearful of damage to their stores.

The crowd turned against the police and the riot broke out. One officer was engulfed in flames as a firebomb exploded at his feet. The rioters threw molotov cocktails and other types of firebombs at the officers. Police responded with tear gas and swept the streets in riot gear. Many persons were injured in the rioting and buildings were damaged before the disturbance was quelled. Some officers had long guns with bayonets attached as they marched into the crowd.

Over 1,500 people had confronted the officers. In the end the street was taken back, but not before 16 officers were injured and 25 people were arrested. Ann Arbor Police were aided by the Washtenaw, Monroe and Oakland Sheriff's Department, along with the Michigan State Police.

Here is how a local underground newspaper described the incident: “Last night at about 8:00 p.m. about 50 brothers and sisters were getting together on South U., enjoying ourselves drawing on the sidewalk in colored chalk and diggin' the motorcycle people riding by doing wheelies and just generally gettin' down, when one lone pig (policeman) showed up to bust a cycle brother. The people charged the street and surrounded the pig yellin' to the fucker to let the brother go.

“It was too much for the punk to handle. He got on his radio and in about five minutes there were four other pig cars and about 10 pigs moving everyone back across the street. By this time there were 200–300 brothers and sisters moving about.

“Soon the people moved into the street dancing and just getting down. We blocked off S. University at Forest with anything we could find. The street was ours! The pigs never came back and the crowd, which had grown to 1000, were really understanding what ‘Power to the people’ means.”

In any event, the street was eventually cleared after they were done “getting down.” Interestingly, many of the marches were in an effort to “liberate” S. University. The protestors wanted S. University blocked off to make it a true “people's park.”

In response to rumors that the police were brutal in quelling the riot, Ann Arbor Mayor Robert Harris published a letter to the university community about the incident. He stated, “The sad events of last night were not a ‘police riot’; they were not Chicago all over again. On Monday night a group of young people, almost none of them university students, attempted to take over a city street. Last night a group attempted to take over the same street. The group came armed with bottles, cement, bricks and other weapons. When the police ordered them to leave, one youth attacked a police officer with a knife and others threw rocks at the police.

“In the course of the evening, as police tried to keep crowds off the street, they were time and time again pelted with large rocks-from people in the crowd and on top of buildings. We will not allow S. University to be taken over by a small group who declare themselves to be the ‘people.’

I hope there is no further trouble along S. University. I ask students, in the event of further trouble, to stay off the streets and not join in.”

In July of 1969, the White Panthers applied for a permit for a rock concert at West Park. City officials were warned against approving a permit, but did so anyway. During the concert there was rampant marijuana smoking, minors drinking and at least two people that exposed themselves, one of them on stage.

Ann Arbor officers only made one arrest, which enraged not only local citizens, but the police officers themselves. It was rumored that the officers were told not to make any arrests, for fear of rioting by the crowds. This decision was said to have come from the city administrator, which further angered the officers. The police officers association blasted the city's “hands off” policy when it came to the protests, that were now rampant in Ann Arbor.

Chief Krasny denied this stating, “The decision on the manner in which we would police West Park was made by me, as chief of police. At no time have the mayor or the administrator directed this office specifically on police operations.”

Sheriff Harvey decided to enter the fray stating if Ann Arbor Officers are prevented from making arrests from “local politicians” that he would have his deputies make arrests in city parks.

Sheriff Harvey stated, “It's about time somebody stood up and drew the line against this animal conduct.

“The decent people of this area have a few rights too, like not having to put up with hopheads, sex nuts and public drunks.”

City Administrator Larcom stated Sheriff Harvey could be of assistance by “working with our chief in a cooperative manner as he previously indicated he would.” Obviously there was not much love lost between city officials and Sheriff Harvey.

Sheriff Harvey thought the city should be much more forceful when dealing with the student protestors, while it is obvious that the city felt it was better to be as non-confrontational as possible. This is just one of many instances where the city adopted this type of approach.

These photographs of Sergeants Norm Olmstead and Calvin Hicks were published in a local underground newspaper.

John Sinclair, one of the major spokesmen for the “Hippie” movement was convicted for possession of marijuana in July of 1969, which at that time carried a prison term of 10 years in prison. Sinclair was the leader of the White Panthers Movement and the Trans-Love Energies communal residence in Ann Arbor.

Sinclair was a thorn in the side of local law enforcement and no doubt his conviction was met with smiles at local police stations. The case is hard to believe by today's standard as Sinclair had given two marijuana cigarettes to an undercover police officer in Detroit. Unfortunately for Sinclair, Wayne County juries were not so sympathetic about marijuana offenses and he was sentenced to 9 to 10 years in prison.

The rally cry of “Free John Now” soon became the slogan for the White Panthers and Sinclair's arrest drew national attention. Poet Allen Ginsberg came to Ann Arbor to raise money for Sinclair's defense.

Momentum built and on December 10, 1971, a “Free John Now” rally was held at Crisler Arena. Over 15,000 people crammed the arena for the rally which started at 7:15 p.m. and continued until 3:30 a.m.

The rally featured Ginsberg, Black Panther Chairman Bobby Seale, three members of the “Chicago Seven,” John Lennon and his wife Yoko Ono. The crowd roared it's approval when John Lennon sung a song he had written for the occasion called “John Sinclair,” which called for his freedom.

Sinclair was indeed freed after serving two years for the crime as the Michigan Supreme Court threw out the government's case against him, calling the sentence “excessive.”

Sinclair's White Panthers, which later changed it's name to the Rainbow People's Party, drew not only the attention of local authorities but also the federal government. U.S. Attorney General John Mitchell authorized the F.B.I to wire tap the phones at the Headquarters of the White Panthers at 1520 Hill street. This was based in part, due to the on-going investigations of the bombings which were occurring on campus.

When Pum Plamondon was arrested for the bombings, his attorneys objected to the wiretaps, which were authorized without consent from a judge. Federal Judge Damon Keith ruled that the wiretaps were illegal and the next day the F.B.I. withdrew them from the headquarters of the White Panthers. Charges against Plamondon were eventually dropped.

On September 25, 1969, 108 youths began a sit-in at the Literature, Science and Arts Building, on campus. The sit-in was not in protest to the Vietnam War, but due the university administration's refusal to allow a student controlled bookstore on campus. President of the University, Robben Flemming, went to the building and told the students they would be arrested if they did not leave. With him was a university photographer, who was taking pictures. The group became angry and began assaulting the photographer, pushing him down a flight of stairs and stealing the film from the camera.

Chief Krasny, Sheriff Harvey and the State Police began mobilizing their officers as mass arrests were feared. University officials wanted to wait out the protestors initially, which was agreed to by the authorities. The university wanted to obtain an injunctive order against the protestors. This angered Sheriff Harvey who stated, “I'm not going to have these men hang around all night while Fleming decides if he wants some wrists slapped. We've been ready to go for three hours. If he's not going to do anything, my men are going home.”

The injunctive order was issued, but could not be served by Chief Krasny, due to the crowd gathered outside the building. A crowd of over 1000 people blocked the chief's entrance to the protestors and he was greeted with a stream of catcalls as he was forced to turn back. These people had gathered outside in support.

At 2:15 in the morning, a line of 30 police cruisers headed for the building, as it was felt that arrests for trespassing now had to be made. At 3:30 a.m. the officers entered the building in mass and arrested all of the protestors. The protestors were placed on buses and taken to the police department, where they were booked on the charges.

Pig Bowl

The first annual “Pig Bowl” took place on December 7, 1969. This event was a charity football game between members of the Ann Arbor Police Department and the Washtenaw County Sheriff's Department. The Ann Arbor Police Department was nicknamed the “goats”, while the sheriff's department was the “pigs.” Chief Krasny picked the name “goats” as Cpl. Geer stated he would bring a goat to the game, named “Fuzz”, who would be the AAPD mascot. Chief Krasny stated, “We're the goats on a lot of occasions, but most of the time we are called names you couldn't print.”

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The sheriff's department also had their own mascot, a pig from a local farm. The winner of the game was to receive the Pig Bowl Trophy, donated by Glenn Saderiska. The trophy was an authentic pig-slopping can, dating back to 1913.

The game was held at Eastern Michigan University and was full contact. Football gear was donated by the University of Michigan and Eastern Michigan. AAPD Officers were in the maize and blue of U of M, while the sheriff's department was in the green and white of EMU. It cost $1.50 for admission and all of the admission price was donated to needy children in the county.

This game was taken extremely seriously by the two teams, as both sides practiced extensively. Presale tickets numbered over 2000. It was decided that all of the money would be used to purchase Christmas presents for needy area children.

Game day was raining and cold, which kept the attendance down to 1500. The first score of the game was by the AAPD goats, as Officer Bob Taylor ran for a 40 yard touchdown. Officer Wally Johnson then kicked the extra point successfully.

The scored stood at 7–0, until the second quarter, when then Cpl. Bill Hoover ran for a 50 yard touchdown. The extra point was no good, which made the score 13–0, in favor of the AAPD goats.

The final score of the game came on a 60 yard pass completion from AAPD quarterback, Officer Gary Severinson to Officer Danny Cook. The final score was the AAPD Goats 19, the WCSD Pigs 0.

Officer Richard Degrand was voted “player of the game” for his excellent defensive play. Three officers suffered injuries in the game, but none of them were serious. Over $5000 was raised for the needy children. Sheriff Harvey stated, “The embarrassing thing about this is that we challenged them to the game in the first place.”

The next year the pigs were victorious over the goats in a tough 7–6 win. The Ann Arbor Goats of 1971 were out for revenge as the series was tied at one win a piece. After the WCSD Pigs won in 1970, someone sent a photo of Sheriff Harvey and his men holding the “Pig Bowl” trophy to all of the Ann Arbor officers. Written across the photos were the words “Remember Last Year” in reference to the Pigs 7–6 win. Sheriff Harvey denied his men sent the photo stating, “We don't have to get those guys mad. That picture sending was an inside job.”

The Pig Bowl of 1971 saw the Ann Arbor Goats beat the WCSD Pigs 20–0. The game was again played at Rynearson Stadium on the campus of Eastern Michigan University in front of 4000 fans. The game raised over $8000 for needy area children.

The fourth annual Pig Bowl, held in October of 1972, again saw the Ann Arbor Goats defeat the Washtenaw County Pigs 8 to 7. Going in to the last minute of the game the pigs were ahead 7–0. Patrolman Gary Severinson scored for the goats with only seconds left. The Goats had to decide to attempt the extra point for the tie or go for the victory with a two point play. Deciding that a tie was like “kissing your sister,” the goats went for the victory with a two point play.

Running back/patrolman Robert Taylor ran the ball over for the two point conversion and the Ann Arbor Goats were victorious. At the following days council session, Ann Arbor Mayor Robert Harris gave the department credit for it's “traditional” victory in the Pig Bowl. He stated the victory “established the superiority of the police department over the sheriff's department in the only category that was in doubt.” One council member jokingly told the mayor to watch his comments or the sheriff's department would pick him up, to which the mayor responded that he “would receive protection from the city's officers.” The event again aided needy children in Washtenaw County.

The pig bowl was discontinued for fear of serious injuries to the officers.

Murder in Ann Arbor

On July 5, 1969, Margaret Phillips was shot in her apartment at 203 N. State Street. Phillips died 23 hours after she was discovered unconscious with two bullet wounds to her head. Phillips had been shot with a .22 caliber pistol. Police initially had no suspects, but after speaking with Phillips' parents, the investigation focused on Ernest Bishop.

Phillips was a student at the university who enjoyed working with people that were “down and out.” She was working on her doctoral in sociology, specializing in persons with mental disorders. In a chilling coincidence, Phillips was researching six unsolved local murders of female co-eds. These murders were later solved and John Norman Collins was convicted of one of them, commonly referred to as the Co-Ed Murders. Once Bishop had been arrested, the focus of the co-ed murders focused on him, but he was eventually cleared.

Bishop had recently been released from prison and Phillips was counseling him, trying to find him a job. She had been introduced to Bishop by a university professor who was also interested in rehabilitating former convicts. Phillips established a relationship with Bishop, trying to acclimate him back into society.

Bishop had gone to Phillips' apartment where he had a cup of coffee, while Phillips had a glass of lemonade. The killer pulled out the .22 and shot Phillips twice in the head and once in the hand. Bishop's fingerprints were found on the coffee cup.

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After interviewing Phillips' parents, officers found that she had been assisting Bishop and he was arrested within days as he walked out of his Gott Street home.

While Phillips lay dying in the hospital, a detective was at her side with a tape recorder in case she had any last words. While she never woke up, police did leak information that she was in fair condition in the thought that this information would flush the killer out.

Chief Krasny stated that while this was unsuccessful, “It was a move we felt we had to make. We felt a little added heat on the killer would push him toward us.”

Information was also discovered that the murder weapon was thrown into the Huron River and it was found there by Michigan State Police Divers. This information was provided by Clifford Shewcraft, a friend of Bishop's. After the shooting, Bishop went to his house and told him he had witnessed the shooting of Phillips. He told Shewcraft that a man named “Dave” was responsible for the shooting.

They went for a ride and Bishop told Shewcraft to stop the vehicle as they were northbound on US-23. Bishop exited the car and threw the murder weapon into the river. Bishop was tried for the murder and found not guilty by reason of insanity.

Before the arrest of Bishop, Phillips' father came forward with information about a possible motive in the killing. Phillips had told her father that she was probing the “Co-Ed Murders” which had yet to be solved. She said that she had information which would “shock the nation” once revealed.

Detectives searched for this information but could not find any which had a tie to the Co-Ed Murders. Certainly there was a chance that Bishop was the suspect they were looking for in the Co-Ed Murders investigation, but they could not find any evidence to establish Bishop as a suspect. Investigators did discover that Phillips and Alice Kalom, the sixth murder victim in the Co-Ed Murders, were casual acquaintances. Detectives could not establish anything further and Bishop was cleared. Ballistics tests found that the weapon that killed Phillips was not used in any of the Co-Ed Murders.

The city was still reeling from the Co-Ed Murders when another murder shocked the community. A Dearborn woman was murdered on December 9, 1969, at the University Towers at 536 S. Forest. Gloria Murphy, 19, was found dead by her husband, James, after he returned to their high rise apartment. She had been slashed with a knife and stabbed repeatedly. An autopsy later found she had been stabbed over 34 times.

On the day of the murder, Chief Krasny stated that Murphy's husband “was not a suspect in the case.” James Murphy was a student the U of M and had arrived home at 2:00 p.m. discovering his wife's body fully clothed and lying by their bed. The Murphy's two week old baby was lying uninjured at the foot of the bed.

As the detectives processed the scene they noted there were no signs of forced entry into the apartment and nothing was stolen from it. While her husband was not a suspect initially, this fact aroused their suspicions of Mr. Murphy. Feeling the suspect discarded the murder weapon nearby, officers searched over 200 apartments in the building, along with the trash dumpsters outside, in an attempt to find it.

Murphy told the detectives that he did not have any classes on the day of the murder as it was finals week. He stated he was studying at home and left early in the afternoon to do some shopping. He arrived home about 1:30 p.m. and discovered her body. Instead of calling for the police, he called an ambulance. Once they arrived they immediately called the police as it was obvious a murder had taken place.

Word spread quickly through campus what had occurred and before Murphy's body was taken from the apartment, crowds spread along S. University and Forest, shocked at this latest murder.

The detectives began to focus the investigation on Mr. Murphy and asked him to submit to a lie detector test. He was taken to the State Police where the examination was held. Afterwards, he was admitted to St. Joseph's Mercy Hospital for emotional distress. It was at the hospital that Murphy admitted to killing his wife.

Detectives Richard Anderson and Bill Lyons were at the hospital with Murphy, as was Murphy's father. As the younger Murphy was lying on an examination table his father asked him, “Jimmy, did you hurt her?” Murphy broke down and stated, “Yes, I don't know why. I was only kidding Dad.”

On December 10, James Murphy was arrested for the murder of his wife. Chief Krasny stated, “Sufficient evidence has been found in the case. It will now be turned over to the county prosecutor.” Chief Krasny would not say what the evidence was, but did admit that the murder weapon had not been found.

Officers conducted a weeklong search for the murder weapon in the city's landfill. Their search was called off after an unsuccessful week at the landfill on Ellsworth, as they believed the knife was wrapped in bloody clothing and thrown into it.

It was discovered by detectives that the couple had argued frequently over many things, money and their lack of it a major concern. Murphy was to have graduated from U of M the following Saturday, instead he was in the county jail while wife's funeral was taking place.